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Poesio Massimo - Using Data about Conceptual Representations in the Brain for Computational Linguistics

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Conférence donnée par Massimo Poesio dans le cadre du séminaire "Language, cognition and computational models".

Existing electronic repositories of lexical and commonsense knowledge such as ConceptNet, Cyc, FrameNet, and especially WordNet (Fellbaum, 1998), have had a dramatic and positive impact on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Human Language Technology (HLT) research, making it possible to carry out the first large-scale semantic analyses of text and some simple forms of inference. Nowadays there are few semantic interpretation systems that do not use WordNet. However, the widespread application of these resources has also highlighted their limitations. There are reasons to doubt that the organization of conceptual knowledge in the brain reflects its organization in WordNet. The hypothesis underlying the BrainNet project is that the dramatic advances in our knowledge of concepts arising from interdisciplinary research of the last thirty years pave the way to the development of a lexical resource of a novel type that may overcome the limits just discussed : an electronic dictionary that directly mirrors the mental lexicon, modelled on the basis of recordings of brain activity using contemporary neuroimaging techniques (EEG, MEG and fMRI) and containing information automatically extracted from corpora using automatic methods. In the talk I will discuss some findings about the organization of abstract knowledge as well as work on using these methods in computational linguistics applications such as sentiment analysis and in medical applications such as the early prevention of semantic dementia.

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